Anti-epileptic is one of the best-selling drugs. They can eliminate or reduce seizures in two ways. Anti-epileptic drugs include phenytoin, carbamazepine, ethosuximide, sodium valproate, carbamazepine, ethosuximide, vanilla aldehyde, etc. Scientists have found that anti-epileptic drugs have become one of the most common drugs in surface water. Like most other drugs, it is excreted from the body in its natural form or as a metabolite and enters the water circulation. In addition, a large number of unused drugs were flushed down the toilet, causing the concentration of anti-epileptic drugs in the sewage to increase. Scientists found carbamazepine with a concentration as high as 3.8 μg/L in the influent of the wastewater treatment plant. However, in ordinary sludge treatment plants, the amount of carbamazepine removed is very small, or even negligible, which makes the environmental pollution of anti-epileptic more and more serious.
Fig. 1 The chemical structure of carbamazepine
After entering the environment, the degradation of anti-epileptic is very slow, with a half-life of about 100 days. Scientists have discovered that anti-epileptic in water pose a serious threat to aquatic life. For example, carbamazepine can change the blood characteristics of aquatic organisms (such as hemoglobin, total red blood cell count, etc.) and serum biomarkers (such as alkaline phosphate, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, etc.). It also significantly affects oxidative stress markers (such as superoxide dismutase and catalase). To understand the anti-epileptic contaminants to the environment and achieve the purpose of controlling and treating the contaminants, as a fast and efficient immunoassay method, ELISA has long been used to monitor the anti-epileptic contaminants in environment.
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