Cancer refers to malignant tumors originating from epithelial tissues. Cancer cells differentiate and proliferate abnormally, grow out of control, and metastasize. The occurrence of cancer is a complex process, divided into three processes, carcinogenesis, cancer promotion, and evolution. It is closely related to smoking, infection, occupational exposure, environmental pollution, unreasonable diet, and genetic factors. Early diagnosis of cancer is difficult. Fortunately, after decades of research, ELISA has been applied to detect early biomarkers of a variety of cancers, to achieve early cancer diagnosis. For example, alkaline phosphatase increases significantly in the early stages of liver cancer and osteosarcoma; serum ɑ acid glycoprotein increases in the early stages of lung cancer; CA19-9 increases in digestive system tumors. Tumor-associated antigens, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), can be increased in gastrointestinal tumors, lung cancer, and breast cancer; alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is significantly increased in liver cancer and malignant teratoma.
As an effective method for detecting cancer biomarkers, ELISA has the following advantages
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a glycoprotein that belongs to the albumin family. AFP has a variety of important physiological functions, including transportation function, two-way regulation function, immunosuppression and so on. AFP is closely related to the occurrence and development of primary liver cancer and a variety of tumors, and can be used as a positive detection indicator for a variety of tumors.
The unconventional receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by Met proto-oncogene is related to a variety of oncogene products and regulatory proteins. MET is an important factor in cell proliferation, differentiation and movement. Met is closely related to the occurrence and metastasis of a variety of cancers. Studies have shown that many cancer patients overexpress MET during the development and metastasis of their tumors.
Heparanase (Hpa) is the only endogenous glycosidase that can cleave the side chain of heparan sulfate proteoglycan in mammalian cells so far. Hpa can also destroy the extracellular matrix and basement membrane, and participate in tumor angiogenesis. Heparanase is closely related to malignant tumors and tumor cell infiltration, metastasis and tumor angiogenesis. To date, all cancers have reported overexpression of heparanase.
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