Fig. 1 The chemical structure of Janus kinase 1
Enzymes are a type of biocatalysts. They dominate many catalytic processes such as metabolism, nutrition, and energy conversion of organisms. Kinases are a class of enzymes that transfer phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules to specific target molecules. The largest number of kinases are protein kinases. Protein kinases can catalyze the phosphorylation of proteins, thereby changing their activity. These kinases play a broad role in the signal transduction of cells and their complex life activities. Enzymes, especially kinases, are inseparable from the regulation of signal transduction and cell activities. With the in-depth research and increasing understanding of enzymes & kinases, enzymes and kinases have become a current research hotspot, which is especially important for tumors research. In tumors, many kinase genes are mutated or overexpressed. We can understand or judge the occurrence and development of certain diseases by measuring the activity of enzymes & kinases by ELISA. The application of ELISA in the study of enzymes & kinases has effectively helped researchers to explore this area.
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a large family of polygenes that have the function of hydrolyzing second messengers in cells, degrading intracellular cAMP or cGMP, thereby terminating the biochemical effects conducted by these second messengers. PDEs include 11 types and more than 30 isozymes. The diversity and complexity of the phosphodiesterase superfamily provide new clues for the treatment of many diseases. In recent years, PDEs, as new therapeutic targets, have attracted widespread attention from many scholars.
Creatine kinase (CK) mainly exists in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. It has an important and direct relationship with intracellular energy movement, muscle contraction, and ATP regeneration. The physiological increase of CK is common after exercise, and the pathological increase is common in myocardial infarction, viral myocarditis, dermatomyositis, muscular dystrophy, pericarditis, cerebrovascular accident, and so on. The determination of creatine kinase activity can be used to diagnose skeletal muscle diseases and myocardial diseases.
Acid phosphatase (ACP) is widely present in various tissues, cells, and body fluids in the body. The tissue sources of acid phosphatase in the blood are the prostate, liver, spleen, and so on. There are 20 isoenzymes of acid phosphatase, and the clinically determined isoenzymes are roughly divided into two categories, one is prostatic acid phosphatase, the other is non-prostatic acid phosphatase. Determination of serum acid phosphatase helps the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer, especially when prostate cancer has bone metastases.
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