Fig. 1 The chemical structure of Tetracycline
Tetracyclines are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics produced by actinomycetes. Tetracyclines have a killing effect on gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, most rickettsia, mycoplasma, chlamydia, atypical mycobacteria, and spirochetes. Tetracyclines antibiotics mainly include chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and semi-synthetic derivatives of methenoxycycline and doxycycline. Tetracyclines can specifically bind to the A position of the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome to prevent the connection of aminoacyl-tRNA at this position, thereby inhibiting the growth of peptide chains and affecting the synthesis of bacterial proteins. The widespread use of tetracyclines has led to their frequent residues in animal foods. Long-term consumption of food contaminated with tetracycline may cause serious adverse reactions. Mainly manifested as vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, esophageal ulcers, and other gastrointestinal reactions; multiple bacterial infections; effects on bone and tooth growth; liver damage; vitamin deficiency; nephrotoxicity; in addition, tetracycline antibiotics can occasionally cause drug fever, skin rashes, and other allergic reactions.
Tetracyclines as broad-spectrum antibacterial veterinary drugs have a wide range of applications in aquaculture, livestock breeding, and other industries. In addition, tetracyclines will also be used as feed and fertilizer additives to increase the antibacterial properties of animals and plants. However, improper use or non-compliance with the limit regulations will cause residues in livestock products and cause serious harm to human health. Therefore, feed testing and fertilizer testing will involve the limited analysis of tetracyclines. The requirements for residue limits of tetracyclines in different foods and commodities are different. However, the detection standards for tetracyclines residues have clear regulations on their limit indicators, detection methods, and quantitative analysis methods. The ELISA with convenient operation, simple process, and high accuracy is often used to quantitatively analyze the tetracyclines residues in food.
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