Saxitoxin (STX) is mainly produced by dinoflagellate. It is one of the most toxic marine biological toxins known and is the main toxin of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP). When the red tide erupts, a variety of algal toxins will be produced to pollute the water environment, and STX is one of the main toxins of the red tide. When algae release STX into the water body, it accumulates in aquatic products such as filter-feeding shellfish, fish, shrimp, and crabs. And through the biological enrichment of the aquatic food chain, it is passed to the terrestrial biota, and finally to humans. Saxitoxin is distributed all over the world, especially in some countries in Europe and North America, which has seriously affected the development of local fisheries.
Fig. 1 The chemical structure of saxitoxin
STX is a marine guanamine toxin, a derivative of tetrahydropurine. STX is heat-resistant, is not destroyed by human digestive enzymes, and is stable in high-temperature and acidic solutions. The toxicity of STX includes three aspects: nervous system, cardiovascular system, and cytotoxic activity. Among them, the mortality of STX is high, and there is no specific antidote. With the deterioration of the marine environment and the occurrence of a large number of red tides, countries all over the world pay more attention to the inspection of shellfish poisoning. The United States has established a shellfish poison monitoring system in 1925. Japan, Canada, etc. have similar regulations. The health warning line of STX and similar substances in drinking water is 3 μg/L. With the acquisition of anti-STX antibodies, ELISA detection technology has gradually developed. Among them, direct competition ELISA is the most commonly used method, with a detection limit of 3 pg/mL, and the detection limit of indirect ELISA can reach 10 pg/mL.
Direct 1 Step Competitive ELISA
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