Signal transduction is a process in which extracellular factors bind to receptors to trigger a series of intracellular biochemical reactions and protein interactions, followed by the expression of genes required for cell physiological responses and the formation of various biological effects. Through the interaction of signal proteins between cells, various signaling pathways form a highly ordered and complex regulatory network in the body. In the human body, signal transduction pathways are usually composed of specific cells that secrete and release information substances, information substances, and target cells. Intercellular information substances, namely the first messenger, can be divided into neurotransmitters, endocrine hormones, and local chemical mediators and so on. The information substance in the cell, that is, the second messenger, can be divided into Ca2+, cAMP, cGMP and so on. Failure of signal transduction pathways may cause disease and even cancer. To study the important role of each link in the signal transduction pathway, and to detect diseases caused by signal transduction failure, ELISA as an efficient immunoassay technology is widely used in signal transduction research.
Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) refer to a group of proteins produced by cells under the induction of stressors, especially environmental high temperatures. HSPs are divided into five categories, namely HSP110, HSP90, HSP70, HSP60 and small Heat Shock Proteins. HSP is a protective protein that can improve the stress ability of cells, especially heat resistance. HSP also breaks down damaged proteins and helps cells achieve normal physiological functions. And HSP also participates in the innate immune response.
Histone refers to the general term for basic proteins that bind to DNA in the nucleus of all eukaryotes. Histone plays a role in gene regulation, and its genes are very conservative. Histones can be modified by several types such as methylation, acetylation and phosphorylation. The correlation between histone modification and chromatin structure changes and gene activity control is a hot research topic. Studies have found that abnormal histone methylation is associated with many human diseases such as tumor.
Actin is a kind of globular multifunctional protein that forms microfilaments, which is basically present in all eukaryotic cells. It interacts with a large number of other proteins and is highly conserved during evolution. Actin is a kind of muscle structural protein and plays an important role in muscle movement. It is present in the filaments of striated muscle myofibrils and also in smooth muscle. Actin filaments are connected to α-actin and the membrane through vinculin.
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