Microcystins (MCs) is a cyclic heptapeptide compound produced by the main cyanobacteria such as Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena algae, and Oscillatoria. When cells rupture or age, toxins are released into the water, polluting the environment. MCs is an ecological growth regulator with a self-reinforcing mechanism. High concentrations of MCs will affect the diversity of aquatic plant species, thereby helping cyanobacteria gain a competitive advantage and form water blooms, and the formed water blooms will produce more MCs, Causing a worse impact on the environment. MCs can be detected in 80% of cyanobacteria blooms, and its harm to the water environment and human health has become one of the major environmental issues of global concern.
Fig. 1 The chemical structure of microcystins
MCs has many isomers, the most common are MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR (L, R, Y stand for leucine, arginine, and tyrosine). The most researched at home and abroad are MC-LR and MC-RR. MC has strong stability, heating and boiling can not destroy toxins. Studies have shown that MCs has obvious hepatophilicity, and its pollution is closely related to the occurrence of liver cancer, liver necrosis, and intrahepatic hemorrhage. With continuous in-depth research on the toxicity of MCs, it has also been found that MCs has multiple organ toxicity, genetic toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and potential cancer-promoting properties, and can cause abnormal development of test organisms. The water polluted by MCs not only has serious toxic effects on humans but also poses a serious threat to environmental sustainability and aquatic life. Therefore, common MCs should be monitored. Due to its high sensitivity, simple sample processing, convenient operation, and lower detection limit than the WHO level, the ELISA detection method is considered to be a more promising method.
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