Viruses are "non-cellular organisms" composed of a few components such as nucleic acid and protein capsids. The virus can only live in a specific living cell, and cannot carry out independent metabolic activities. After the virus infects and invades the body, it uses the raw materials in the host cell to rapidly replicate and multiply. Eventually, the host cell is lysed and the virus is released. According to genetic material, viruses can be divided into DNA viruses, RNA viruses, and retroviruses. At the cellular level, the main destructive effect of the virus is to cause cell lysis, thereby causing cell death. In multicellular organisms, once enough cells in the body die, it will have an impact on the health of the body. There are many types of human diseases caused by viruses, such as common diseases colds, flu, and chickenpox, as well as serious diseases smallpox, AIDS, SARS, avian flu, and COVID-19.
The virus can spread horizontally or vertically. Blood exchange, sex, saliva exchange, virus-containing food or drinking water, mosquito , breathing, and other transmission routes can spread the virus in susceptible groups. Viruses have caused many pestilences in the human world and have taken away countless lives. For example, ancient smallpox, the Spanish Flu, the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, and the COVID-19 that is currently sweeping the world. Antibiotics do not affect the treatment of viruses, and they mainly rely on limited antiviral drugs or serum antibodies. Therefore, the prevention of viruses is particularly important. Given the various advantages of ELISA, it has been widely used in virus detection. The application of ELISA in virus detection is of great significance for preventing the spread of viral diseases and for the research of molecular biology and cell biology.
The diameter of adenovirus (ADV) is 70-90 nm, and it is composed of 252 capsomeins, which is a DNA virus. ADV has a wide host range but has low pathogenicity to humans. There are 52 kinds of human adenoviruses, and about one-third of the serotypes are related to human diseases. They can infect tissues such as the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, urethra and bladder, eyes, and liver. Adenovirus is carcinogenic to rodents. At present, there is still no specific medicine for the treatment of adenovirus infection, and the adenovirus vaccine is the best preventive measure.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus. HBV adheres and invades liver cells through low-affinity receptors (such as heparan sulfate, proteoglycan, etc.). The degree of liver cell damage is related to the strength of the body's immune response. In the incubation, acute, or chronic phases of hepatitis B virus infection, their blood is contagious. The main route of transmission of HBV is blood transmission, followed by mother-to-child transmission. HBV infection is a global public health problem, and hepatitis B vaccination is a necessary means to effectively control the spread of HBV.
Influenza A viruses are the most common and most likely to mutate influenza viruses. Influenza A virus is highly pathogenic to humans and has caused pandemics in the world many times. The subtypes of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses that can directly infect humans are . The main way of transmission of influenza A virus is air droplet transmission. The symptoms after infection are mainly high fever, cough, runny nose, myalgia, etc. Most of them are accompanied by severe pneumonia, and the fatality rate is high. Influenza vaccination is the most effective way to avoid influenza.
Rotavirus (RV) is a double-stranded RNA virus, there are seven kinds, namely A-G. Among them, type A rotavirus is the most common one, and more than 90% of human rotavirus infections are caused by it. The main route of transmission of RV is the fecal-oral route, which mainly infects the epithelial cells of the small intestine, causing cell damage and diarrhea. RV is one of the main pathogens that cause diarrhea in infants and young children. The number of infants and young children who die from rotavirus infection is approximately 900,000 in the world each year.
Creative Diagnostics has been committed to microbial detection by ELISA. With a wealth of relevant R&D experience and diversified ELISA kit products, we provide high-quality customized ELISA kits services, professional ELISA testing services, and believable ELISA development services, related to virus detection. If you wish a lot of careful data, please contact us.