Fumonisin (FB) is a natural mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium fungi such as Fusarium moniliforme Sheld and Fusariumproliferatum. FB is a type of diester compound, which mainly pollutes food and its products. FB has acute toxicity and potential carcinogenicity to certain livestock, and has become another research hotspot after aflatoxin. So far, 11 types of fumonisins have been discovered: FA1, FA2, FB1, Fumonisin B2, FB3, FB4, FC1, FC2, FC3, FC4 and FP1, of which FB1 is the main component. Food contamination by FB1 has been found worldwide, mainly contaminating corn and corn products. Even in a dry and warm environment, Fusarium moniliforme is still one of the most frequently occurring strains in corn. FB1 is a water-soluble mycotoxin with strong thermal stability. Therefore, the control of FB pollution should be controlled from the source to control the mould pollution of crops during the growth, harvest and storage process.
Fig. 1 The chemical structures of Fumonisin B1
Pure fumonisins are white needle-like crystals. It has been reported that fumonisin is not only a cancer-promoting agent but also a carcinogen for humans and animals. Animal experiments and epidemiological data have shown that fumonisin mainly damages the liver and kidney function, can cause equine leukocytosis and pig lung edema. And FB is related to the high incidence of esophageal cancer in parts of China and South Africa. The harm of FB has attracted worldwide attention, but the specific circumstances of the harm caused by fumonisin to the human body are still unclear. The International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization listed Fumonisin B1, Fusarium moniliforme and its toxins (Fumonisin B1, Fumonisin B2 and Fusarium C) as Category 2B carcinogens. FB's pollution of corn and other grains caused feed pollution, which had a greater impact on the breeding industry. Since ELISA is a low-cost, rapid and sensitive immunoenzyme-linked detection technology, it is widely used to detect the concentration of FB in food products.
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