Infection immunity is the science of studying the interaction between the host and pathogenic microorganisms. After pathogens (bacteria, fungi, viruses or parasitic pathogens) infect the body, on the one hand, the cells of the body quickly stimulate immune regulation signals through the immune recognition system, and then respond through innate immunity and acquired immunity, thereby resisting the invasion of external microorganisms. On the other hand, pathogenic microorganisms can evolve escape mechanisms to evade immune system surveillance. The immune system is composed of immune organs, immune cells and immune active substances. The immunoassay method ELISA can detect the level of each immunologically active substance. This method can provide auxiliary means for studying the immune mechanism of pathogens, the immune regulation mechanism of pathogen infection, and the immune evasion mechanism of pathogens. It can better explain the pathogenic pathological mechanism of infectious diseases, and can also provide information for the detection of pathogenic infections.
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) mainly exists in liver and heart tissue cells. Normally, only a small amount of ALT is released into the blood. However, in the acute phase of various viral hepatitis and drug-toxic hepatocyte necrosis, ALT is released into the blood in large quantities, so it is an important indicator for the diagnosis of viral hepatitis and toxic hepatitis. The detection of ALT in serum by ELISA has the characteristics of high sensitivity and strong specificity, so the results of ELISA can provide a basis for viral hepatitis.
Secretory Immunoglobulin A (slgA) exists in the secretion fluid, mainly in the form of dimer and high molecular weight. As the main antibody of mucosal immunity, sIgA is responsible for important immune functions. sIgA can prevent the adhesion of pathogenic microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria. And plays an important role in neutralizing intracellular viruses, dissolving bacteria, and regulating phagocytosis. By measuring the content of slgA in the secretion, not only the local immune status of the mucosa can be understood, but also the early diagnosis of the disease.
Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) is a peptide chain composed of 456 amino acid residues, which exists in normal human and animal serum. LBP has a high affinity for bacterial endotoxins, also namely lipid A in lipopolysaccharide so it is easy to bind to lipopolysaccharides. LBP has a double-edged sword in the inflammatory response. It can lead to uncontrollable inflammatory response and decrease of immune defence barrier function, causing a systemic inflammatory response, etc., and it also has an anti-inflammatory effect.
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