Chromium (Cr) contaminants mainly come from chromium mining, smelting, chromium salt manufacturing, electroplating, metal processing, tanning, paint, pigments, printing and dyeing industries, and chromium-containing waste gas, wastewater, and waste residues discharged from fuel combustion. Chromium is a trace element necessary for humans and animals, the lack of chromium in the body can cause atherosclerosis. Chromium has a stimulating effect on plant growth and can increase the yield. However, excessive chromium can cause harmful effects on humans, animals, and plants. Chromium and its compounds are highly toxic to the human body and can accumulate in the human body. Chromium contaminants have become an important problem of environmental pollution, which needs to be solved urgently.
The valences of chromium are divalent, trivalent, and hexavalent. Trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium in the environment can be transformed into each other. Hexavalent chromium is about 100 times more toxic than trivalent chromium and is a strong mutagenic substance that can induce lung cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer, and trivalent chromium has teratogenic effects. Ingestion of chromium-contaminated food or water can cause abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and other poisoning symptoms, causing allergic dermatitis or eczema; breathing in chromium-contaminated gas has irritation and corrosive effects on the respiratory tract, causing pharyngitis, bronchitis, etc. Given the strong toxicity of chromium, there are strict index control standards for pollutant discharge. Therefore, it is very important to monitor the concentration of chromium in environmental samples. As a detection method with high sensitivity, good specificity, fast, simple, and accurate, ELISA is used in the detection of chromium.
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