Polyc hlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), also known as polychlorodiphenyls, are a type of chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds produced by high-temperature chlorination of biphenyl as raw material under the action of a metal catalyst. Polychlorinated biphenyls were once widely used in industry. Although they are currently banned, the discharge of waste since their production has caused global environmental pollution problems. Around 1944, PCBs obviously polluted the ecosystem, and the pollution range was very wide. PCBs can be detected from seals in the Arctic to seabird eggs in the Antarctic. It is estimated that the total amount of PCBs in the world's oceans, soils, and atmosphere reaches more than 250,000 to 300,000 tons. PCBs are persistent contaminants and are difficult to degrade, and the water and soil contaminated by them are also difficult to recover.
Fig 1. The chemical structure of biphenyl
PCBs in water bodies will reduce the diversity of aquatic organisms, can accumulate in the body, and then endanger human health through the food chain. PCBs can be absorbed by the human body through the skin, respiratory tract, and digestive tract. And accumulate in adipose tissue, causing diseases of the brain, skin and internal organs, and affecting the nervous, reproductive and immune systems. The International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization has listed PCBs as a class of carcinogens. Because of its carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, neurotoxicity, and endocrine system interference, it has become one of the toxic contaminants monitored by many countries. ELISA has been widely used in the detection of PCBs as a highly sensitive, specific, and convenient detection method.
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