Fig. 1 The chemical structure of chlorpyrifos
Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) refer to organic compound pesticides containing phosphorus, which are mainly used to prevent and control plant diseases, insects, and weeds. Most Chlorpyrifos pesticides are divided into three categories: high toxicity, poisoning, and low toxicity. The common ones are parathion, systemic phosphorus, phorate, methyl parathion, methyl systemic phosphorus, malathion, and dibromophos, etc. The extensive use of OPs has caused them to enter water bodies, atmosphere, and soil widely, pollute the environment, and pose a threat to human health. Some types of OPs are not easy to oxidize, decompose, and are difficult to be degraded by microorganisms. They can stay in the environment for a long time and may undergo chemical changes to become more toxic and harmful secondary pollutants.
Organophosphorus pesticides can enter the human body through the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and intact skin and mucous membranes. It forms phosphorylated cholinesterase with cholinesterase in the body, inhibits the decomposition of acetylcholine, leads to excessive acetylcholine in the tissues, overexcites cholinergic nerves, and causes muscarinic, nicotinic, and central nervous system symptoms. In severe cases, death can be caused by pulmonary edema, cerebral edema, and respiratory paralysis. With the increasing public concern about pesticide pollution in the environment, pesticide residues testing has more extensive and stricter requirements. In order to detect whether organophosphorus pesticides remain in surface water and their residual levels, ELISA has become an important detection method for the determination of pesticide residues in the past few decades.
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