Fig. 1 The chemical structure of Ciprofloxacin
Quinolones, also known as pyridone acids, are chemically synthesized antibacterial drugs that mainly act on gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, mycoplasma, and chlamydia. Quinolone drugs are divided into four generations, and the third generation is currently clinically used. Commonly used drugs include norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, and so on. Quinolone drugs inhibit bacterial replication by inhibiting bacterial desoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. With the widespread application of quinolones, they often remain in animal foods. Bacterial resistance and adverse reactions have also occurred one after another. After human consumption of animal food containing quinolone residues, the human body will become severely resistant to the drug. Long-term consumption of food contaminated by quinolones may cause serious adverse reactions. Mainly include insomnia, dizziness, headache, and other central nervous system symptoms; arthropathy; skin and phototoxicity; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and other digestive tract reactions; liver and kidney function abnormalities; blood cells and thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and other blood system symptoms.
Quinolones are widely used in animal husbandry and aquaculture because of their wide antibacterial spectrum, strong antibacterial activity, and no cross-resistance with other antibacterial drugs. This has also led to quinolones residues in most animal-derived foods. The problem of quinolones residues has attracted more and more attention. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, and the European Union have all established maximum residue limits for a variety of quinolones in animal tissues. The US FDA announced in 2005 that enrofloxacin was banned from being used to treat bacterial infections in poultry. Quinolone broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs are mainly used for the treatment of human diseases. In order to prevent humans from consuming food containing quinolones residues and causing harm to the human body, it is necessary to detect such drugs in food. Currently, the commonly used detection method is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Indirect competitive ELISA
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