Chlamydia is a gram-negative pathogen whose size is between viruses and bacteria. It cannot synthesize high-energy compounds ATP and GTP and is a strict intracellular parasitic prokaryotic pathogen. According to its antigenic properties, morphology and glycogen content, it can be divided into Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Chlamydia veterinary. After chlamydia infects the human body, it first invades columnar epithelial cells and grows and multiplies in the cells, and then enters the monocyte macrophages to proliferate, inhibit the metabolism of the infected cells, dissolve and destroy the cells and cause the release of lytic enzymes. The cytotoxic effect of metabolites causes allergy and autoimmunity. Chlamydia can cause uterine infection, premature delivery, miscarriage, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, bronchitis, gastroenteritis, encephalomyelitis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis in animals and humans. It poses no small threat to the health of people and animals.
The transmission route of chlamydia is sexual transmission, indirect transmission, and vertical transmission. Since chlamydia reproduces in cells, the specific immunity acquired by the body after infection is weak and the duration is short. It is easy to cause repeated and persistent infections of mycoplasma. Chlamydia causes great damage to the reproductive system. It is estimated that about 50% to 60% of adult nongonococcal urethritis is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Approximately 2/3 of acute epididymitis in young people is caused by chlamydia, which can cause infertility. Cervicitis caused by mycoplasma infection can progress up to endometritis and salpingitis, which can lead to infertility. Infections during pregnancy may cause miscarriage, premature delivery, stillbirth, and postpartum pelvic inflammatory disease and pass to the newborn through the birth canal (the infection rate is as high as 50%-70%). Since the 20th century, chlamydia has been found to be related to cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurological diseases. Because mycoplasma is difficult to cure, its detection becomes particularly important. ELISA is currently the most widely used detection method.
Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) can be divided into 3 biological variants, the most typical of which is TWAR. C. pneumoniae spreads through the respiratory tract, grows, reproduces, and invades the cells of the respiratory tract, thereby causing an infection state. After C. pneumoniae invades the human body, it mainly causes a mononuclear-macrophage reaction, causing its persistent infection in the host. The infection easily becomes chronic and is related to many chronic infections, such as coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma, sarcoidosis, and reactive arthritis.
Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) is a species of chlamydia, named after the pathogen was originally isolated from parrots. C. psittaci is a typical animal-borne infectious disease that can infect humans, birds, and some mammals. C. psittaci is mainly inhaled through the respiratory tract to cause infection. The bacteria-carrying secretions and excrement can also cause infection through the skin, mucous membrane and digestive tract. After being infected with the pathogen, it is usually characterized by high fever, aversion to cold, headache myalgia, cough and pulmonary infiltrative lesions, and most patients have pneumonia.
Chlamydia trachomatis(C. trachomatis) has 15 serotypes and two forms. And C. trachomatis has special staining characteristics, and its staining is different at different developmental stages. C. trachomatis infection can lead to a variety of host diseases, such as trachoma, inclusion body envelope inflammation, genitourinary tract infections, and venereal lymphogranuloma. C. trachomatis infection during pregnancy is almost asymptomatic, but it can cause premature delivery, premature rupture of membranes, and can be transmitted to newborns and cause neonatal pneumonia and inclusion body conjunctivitis.
Chlamydia pecorum (C. pecorum) has a wide range of hosts. The most commonly infected domestic animals are cattle, sheep, and pigs. Many wild animals are the natural hosts of this fungus. C. pecorum enters the host body through the digestive tract and becomes infected. So far, no humans have been infected with C. pecorum. The clinical characteristics of animals infected with C. pecorum are different. Cattle are mainly manifested as encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, pneumonia, and enteritis; sheep are mainly manifested as conjunctivitis, polyarthritis, and enteritis; pigs are mainly manifested as pneumonia, polyarthritis, and miscarriage.
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