Dioxins usually refer to a group of polychlorinated substituted planar aromatic compounds with similar structures and physical and chemical properties, including polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Among them, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) is by far the most toxic pollutant known to mankind. Dioxins are a group of chemical substances with persistent pollution to the environment. The sources of dioxins in the atmospheric environment are complex. The emissions from steel smelting, incineration industry, the use of defoliants, the preparation of pesticides, and automobile exhaust emissions are the main sources of dioxins in the environment. Waste incineration has received the highest degree of attention. Dioxins are distributed globally and have been found in almost all media in the world. The most serious places where these compounds accumulate are in the soil, sediment and food.
Fig 1. The chemical structure of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
Human short-term exposure to high doses of dioxins may cause skin damage and may also alter liver function. Long-term exposure can damage the immune system, the developing nervous system, the endocrine system, and reproduction. Studies have pointed out that dioxins may also cause poor fetal growth. Chronic exposure to dioxins in animals has caused several types of cancer. The WHO International Cancer Institute classifies TCDD as a "known human carcinogen". Dioxins in the environment can also be enriched and transmitted through the food chain, endangering human health. Due to the high potential toxicity of these compounds, long-term monitoring of their concentration in the environment is required. ELISA is used in the detection of dioxin because of its convenience, speed and high sensitivity.
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